Flora And Fauna
The city is located in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region. There are small hillocks of very low heights. There is a thin layer of soil that supports the growth of scrubs and bushes. The plateaus are in chains and mainly chasmophytes grow here. The hills in the central part of the plateau are completely barren and show granitic nature. The small trees cover these low hills. The most commonly seen weeds are Lantana and some exotic weeds. On the hillocks forests are found having deciduous species and bamboo plantations. The other species growing on these barren lands are Gynnosporia Montana, plms, Eugenia species, Anona squamosa, Butea mono sperma etc. these are the monsoon forests and the away from the villages or the towns. The major area of the plateau is occupied by some cultivated fields that surround the villages and the rail and road network. The railway lines and the roads are constructed for easy transport of the mineral resources. The development of many townships and railway stations has lead to the deforestation. Near the fringes the species like Phoenix acaulis, cassia species, combretum decandrum, neem, bamboo, holarrhena, woodfordia etc are found in these areas.
The forests in the Dhalbhum area are the protected and reserved types and are present mainly in the valleys and the open ridges. Here the forests are dense and deciduous as well as the evergreen trees grow in these forests. Due to the exploitation for the minerals, many of the hill tops are barren. The trees in the forests stand close to each other and have the growth of orchids, mistletoes, epiphytes etc.
The important tree for the villagers are Mahua, neem, peepal, date palm, bargad, mango, tamarind, plum etc. These are grown in the area of Ghatshila-Chakulia, by the side of the railway line. Here a very large lang is used for the cultivation. The forests in these regions are exploited and are in very bad condition since long time.
The vegetation in the South Porahat area and the north Kolhan area is very bad. The cuttings as well as the grazing activities are very much in these areas hence affecting the vegetation. Some species that are grown on the hills include lannea grandis, careya arborea, Dillenia pentagta, Co-chlospermum gossypium, Dillenia aurea, asan harra, sal, Gardenia Specics, kusum ,pterocarpus marsupium etc. The even fields have the growth of dhaura, Sterrculia urens, cheistanthus collinus, bamboo, khajur and salai etc. Some herbs like Ageratum conyoides, clerodendron infortunatum and scoparia dulcis are also grown here.
There are several hill ranges between Bandagaon and Anandpur on the boundaries in the North east region. The ghat area here is having the ghats crossing range of the mountains to reach the district of Ranchi. The whole ghat area is covered with many forests. The forest is not as thick though but mostly the xerophilous species grow here.
The plants here are tall and are not very close to each other. The Sal is also present .There are many other trees with the white bark called Sterculia urens and some species like mahua, semal, peepal, palas, & kydia calycina and aam are grown here. These trees are accompanied by some climbers like decandrum, combretum, discoreas, vitis species and Smilax species. The shrubs that are grown here are under shrubs like Indigofera pulchella, amla and woodfordia. Many tall grasses are also found in this area.
The common interesting plants grown here:
In the valleys of the district many Gymnosperms like Gnetum scandens are found. In the Chotanagpur region, phoenix acaulis and stemless palm are also seen somewhere. Palamau plateau is found in abundance in the chotanagpur region. In the south of the Jamshedpur, the area is coverd with thread like parasite plants which are green in color called Cassytha filliformis. On the black rocks the Boswellia serrata and the Sterculia urens are the species that are commonly grown.
The forests are spread all over the Jamshedpur but the major part that is covered by the dense forest is the southern region. The vegetation covers the long stretches on the rocky hills and the valleys. The vegetation is according to the topography. It is dry and thorny on the barren hills and semi evergreen in the damp valleys which are bit sheltered. But the main vegetation is always moist tropical deciduous forests. These forests are dry and deciduous on the open ridges. The plateaus in the long chains are majorly barren having least plantation. It is due to the hot and the dry climate of the place.